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The Congenital Disabili- ties Civil Liability Act 1976 provides that an action may be brought by a child born with a disability as a result of an occurrence which aVects either of its parents in their ability to have a normal healthy child safe 2mg estrace breast cancer bake sale ideas, or an occurrence which aVects the mother during pregnancy and either mother and child during birth discount estrace 1mg fast delivery women's health big book of yoga ebook. While there is the possibility that fathers may be sued under the Congenital Disabilities Civil Liability Act 1976, the mother is excluded from liability with the exception of the situation where she has been involved in a road traYc accident. Questions as to what constitutes reasonable parental conduct, what good suing a parent does the disabled child, may apply with equal force to both parent. The real issue in the case was, however, the claim by Mary McKay that the doctor owed her a duty of care when she was in utero, which involved advising her mother as to the desirability of having an abortion, which advice the mother said she would have accepted. First, if the duty of care to the fetus involved imposing a duty on the doctor – albeit indirectly – to prevent the child’s birth, the child would have a cause of action against her mother if she refused to have an abortion. Secondly, the Law Commission in their Report on Injuries to Unborn Children (1974), which had rejected the wrongful life claim, had been of the view that such a claim would impose intolerable burdens on the medical profession, because of subconscious pressure to advise abortion in doubtful cases through fear of action for damages. He was of the view that provided that the defendants gave a balanced explanation of risks involved in alleged pregnancy, including risk of injury to the fetus, the doctor could not be expected to do more. Finally, the Court of Appeal held that section 4(5) of the Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976 excluded liability in wrongful life claims, a point on which all the members of the Court of Appeal in this case agreed. Section 4(5) of the 1975 Act provides that the Act applies to all births after its passing, and in respect of any such birth, it replaces any law in force before its passage whereby a person could be held liable to a child in respect of disabilities with which it might be born. The policy arguments against their acceptance, as outlined in relation to the judgments of the Court of Appeal in this case, have been echoed by academic commentators (Lee, 1989; Fortin, 1987). For example, Mason and McCall Smith have suggested that ‘we favour abandoning the principle of ‘‘wrongful life’’ in favour of diminished life; we can then look not at a comparison, whether it be between the neonate’s current existence and non-existence or with normality, but rather at the actual suVering that has been caused’ (Mason and McCall Smith, 1999: p. They comment further that, ‘This carries the practical advan- tage that the courts can understand and accommodate this form of damage, which allows for a distinction to be made between the serious and slight defect’ (Mason and McCall Smith, 1999: p. Presumably in this situation the couple would not be liable, but here an action may then be brought against the clinician, precisely the type of action rejected in McKay. The diYculties that arise in the context of the competent adult are magniWed still further when we consider mentally incompetent persons and the teenage pregnancy. The consequences of a duty not to reproduce are such that it is unlikely that the courts would be willing to impose such a duty, at present, upon the parents. This has on occasions, as we have seen in relation to enforced Caesarean sections, led to an area of private life being increasingly subject to regulation. None the less, while these are uncomfortable arguments, and while there are considerable problems in the legal enforcement of such duties, there is no doubt that the changing face of genetics will force us to address them. What is important is that such arguments should be addressed in advance by clini- cians, lawyers and philosophers alike, rather than allowing ourselves to be precipitated into dealing with them in the courtroom. Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Dignity of the Human Being with Regard to the Application of Biology and Medicine: Bioethics Conventions. The absence of fathers in debates over drug addiction and fetal harm has had profound consequences for women, for it has dictated that women alone bear the burden and blame for the production of ‘crack babies’. Since at least the late 1980s, and in some cases far earlier, studies have shown a clear link between paternal exposures to drugs, alcohol, smoking, environmental and occupational toxins, and fetal health problems. In fact, while women are targeted as the primary source of fetal health problems, reports of male reproductive harm often place sperm at the centre of discourse as the ‘littlest ones’ victimized by reproductive toxins, somehow without involving their male makers as responsible agents. ScientiWc research linking reproductive toxins to fetal health problems reXects deeply embedded assumptions about men and women’s relation to reproductive biology.
In a world in which doctors become detached from the basic skills of healing buy estrace 2mg with visa womens health hagerstown md, issues of nutrition tend to be approached in only the crudest terms purchase 2 mg estrace otc womens health day. Chapter Twelve Dr Stephen Davies: Nutritional Doctor I had no idea what it was, but I did know that the whole theoretical matrix upon which orthodox 1 medical care was based was fundamentally flawed. By the end of his first month in clinical practice, Dr Stephen Davies knew he was not happy with it. Twenty years later, he looks back on two experiences which explain this lack of affinity with orthodox medicine. Reviewing the first experience, which happened while he was working in a large London teaching hospital, he draws out two themes: that some orthodox doctors did not care for their patients in anything which might be vaguely termed a psychological manner and that even those doctors who did care seemed to be oblivious to the fact that medicine is as much about alleviating symptoms as looking for cures. Just as I arrived, the entourage of Consultant, Senior Registrar, Registrar, two Senior House Officers, two Housemen, the Senior Nursing Sister, three Staff Nurses, two Junior Nurses, and six Medical Students plus a couple of hangers on, were moving away from a bed. That experience, Four or five days after my first ward round, I was with a lovely physician, a rheumatologist; he was kind, caring and conscientious. In came a man in his early forties, a nurse holding him up under each arm-pit, and with a Zimmer frame. He had had juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and it had continued throughout his adult life. Since those days as a trainee doctor, Stephen Davies has revolutionised the way in which he conceives of and practises medicine. Like all those who bring about change, he has had to carve out a very personal direction, a course which led up many false paths and unproductive avenues. Now, in his forties, Davies is well established as a nutritional doctor who has built one of the most effective biological laboratories in the country. All the time, at my first hospital, I was on the verge of dropping out of medicine. Even then I saw that there was so much destructive-ness in medicine, that I did not feel comfortable being a party to. There is, in the history of his search, that kind of self-inquisition that is illustrated in the books of Hermann Hesse. Davies is a rigorous scientist and his laboratory provides the hard diagnostic information which enhances his eclectic, creative and personal approach to medicine. I got involved in Scientology for a period, in the early seventies, simply because I thought that there might be something in there of value. After graduating and failing to find a niche for himself in orthodox medicine, Davies took what was to turn out to be the most important step of his medical career. He was one of three doctors at a hospital in the south of Newfoundland, giving hospital care to a population of ten thousand. I saw a disease pattern which was completely different from that which I had seen in England. The people came from more or less the same genetic stock as the people I had seen in practice in England, so it was more than probable that their different medical condition had been affected environmentally. In the extremes of poverty, in areas where industrial food production, in this case fish canning, has laid waste natural communities and their cultures, medical lessons are sometimes easier to learn. The illnesses I saw were those associated with very poor communities, for example, a six year old child, having to have a complete upper and lower dental extraction because all the teeth were brown and eroded. There was a great deal of depression and a lot of high blood pressure amongst young men and young women. A lot of cardiovascular disease, a lot of young deaths, miscarriages and stillbirths. In 2,500 people, I saw an enormous amount of congenital malformations, the kind of cases that I would just not see in general practice in England.
A French study (Bajos ea cheap 2 mg estrace with visa menstruation quotes, 2010) found that obese women are less likely to have had a recent sex partner compared to women of normal weight but that obese people have similar sex practices and enjoy sex as much as other people do; obese women buy estrace 1mg lowest price women's health center hattiesburg ms, more than obese men, are more likely to have an obese sex partner; and unplanned pregnancy and abortion are more likely among obese females because of reduced use of contraception. Goldbeck-Wood (2010) suggests that contraception data, focusing on the ‘pill’ and condoms, be treated cautiously and that long acting reversible contraceptives are suitable for obese women. Management includes reduction in the dose of the offending drug and, if necessary, low a potency antipsychotic drug or anti- testosterone therapy. Only the imagination limits what has been found to be sexually arousing, varying as it has from sneezing to the wind. Paraphilic behaviour is more common in males, although the number of females thought to be affected may be underestimated. Multiple paraphilias in the same person (polymorphous perversity) is a common finding. Paraphiliacs have achieved officially sanctioned positions looking after children, e. Few paraphiliacs look for help before an offence and the history is usually one measured in years before the person is arrested. Perhaps 60% of paedophiles are heterosexual, although figures given for different sexual orientations by different sources may add up more than 100%! Paedophilic behaviour may commence in the late years of life as a consequence of the disinhibiting effects of dementia. Most children seem to become involved with paedophiles because of fear, but a few may be promiscuous and delinquent. Stekel, an Austrian physician and psychologist and one-time disciple of Freud, died from suicide in London. According to classic psychoanalytic theory, fetishism involves persistence of castration anxiety, anxiety being warded off by an uncommon belief that women possess a penis (therefore they won’t want to cut off the man’s penis)! Vogueing – dressing up as a celebrity to achieve arousal; trashcanners steal objects from dustbins of famous people for the same reason While the use of actual fetish objects is more common among males, fetishistic fantasies are possibly equally distributed between the sexes. Treatment is either aimed at extinguishing the fetish (aversion therapy) or helping all parties concerned to adapt to harmless fetishes. Consequences for the victim range from humiliation through beating 2040 2041 to rape or death. This is only a paraphilia if there is a compulsive quality to it and if it is preferred to actual sex with a partner. What is included here is real sadism and masochism rather than simulated masochism. Narratophilia is the seeking of arousal from hearing sexual stories, hybristophilia is arousal sought from criminals, and chrematistophilia is arousal from being forced to pay for sex or from being robbed by the sex partner. Triolism is the name given to the phenomenon whereby a man achieves sexual pleasure from watching his female partner having sex with another man. Fenichel, the psychoanalyst, stated that the transvestite creates a ‘phallic woman’ of himself to allay fears of castration (cf. Few people give up the practice completely despite any drawbacks they may encounter. The fetishistic transvestite is a male who wears female clothes as a fetish and masturbates while doing so; it is often associated with fetishism and masochism. Lastly, the homosexual transvestite, who is of either sex, is attracted, of course, to members of the same sex. It is important not to assume that someone who engages in cross-dressing has something wrong with him. Some men, independent of sexual orientation, find the experience to be a calming one. In fact, not every child with transsexualism retains this diagnosis into adulthood, although many boys who were transsexual as children will be homosexual or bisexual as adults.
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